Abstract: Mobility is about individual and on-demand
connection. It's about getting the right information at the right
time and in the right place. For governments and businesses,
mobility is about having citizens, customers, employees or a
sales force empowered by technology. In the end, mobility has
the power to transform the way we go beyond the Internet. As
the digital economy evolves, businesses of all kinds are searching
for the Holy Grail of the mobile services market. This means
mobile services that go beyond the Internet, beyond wireless
- beyond "e". In other words, delivering the right
content and applications with the right portal and the right
devices - whether wired or wireless - combined with a high level
of security, the right interface and network and integrated with
the user's vital business processes. Delivering mobility isn't
just about wireless devices and networks. It's really about connecting
people - connecting them with one another, with their work, their
homes and their play - and supporting their experience regardless
of which technology is used. So that the end result is a seamless
customer experience with all the old boundaries removed. Converged
technologies drive the creation of new, highly leveraged applications
that promote the creation of new business processes, which in
turn increase productivity and revenues. It's clear that technology
alone does nothing to accelerate business growth. Rather, growth
occurs as new and emerging applications and business processes
create competitive advantages for technology customers. More
and more businesses and governments are extending their supply
chains in all directions. Global enterprises are automating the
distribution and sharing of data, information and applications
in real time. This necessitates a strategic plan that assures
the privacy, confidentiality, integrity and availability of their
information systems, supporting infrastructures and other intellectual
assets. Yet the issue of data security is only the top of the
iceberg when planning comprehensive information assurance strategy.
Real-life business needs have to be met and they are - processes
and communications need to be transformed, costs need to be reduced
and fast and efficient entry to the mobile business marketplace
need to be facilitated. If this is accomplished, the necessary
four imperatives in the digital economy can be fulfilled - boundaries
can be eliminated, collaborate in new ways, establish their customers'
trust and continuously seek improvement.
1. Introduction: Mobility
and the digital economy
The digital economy means more
than electronic business. It is a new way of working in which
every aspect of a business is digital. The convergence of computing,
communications and digital content opens a new era of unprecedented
innovation related to the use of information. Convergence allows
individuals to experience increased flexibility and personal
freedom across all areas of work, home and play. As a result,
people have adopted new social behaviors to take advantage of
anywhere, anytime and anyway access to information. Mobile technologies
are gateways to the digital economy and mobility is key to seamless
One of the key attributes and
the most obvious advantage in mobile communications and the wireless
world is ubiquity. The mobile technologies have the ability to
make ubiquity part of everyday life. Mobility delivers the anytime,
anywhere, device-independent information access that characterizes
ubiquity. People experience it when they gain immediate access
to pervasive, digitized information while remaining virtually
unaware of any part of technology's mediation.
True digital freedom is the seamless, transparent and unhindered
ability for people to interact with the information they need.
Ubiquity is the right for people to obtain the right information
at the right time and in the right place using any device. The
starting point may be allowing people to read e-mail on their
mobile phones or transferring funds using some other hand-held
device. But genuine ubiquitous computing and communications go
much further: wearable computers that continuously monitor people's
health and relay the information to doctors; pocket devices that
keep people continuously plugged into information; and networks
of smart devices, from cars and refrigerators to climate-control
and security systems that constantly communicate with each other
and adjust people's environments to ensure their comfort and
safety. Mobility is the foundational technology upon which ubiquity
In order for the mobile technologies
to lead to seamless digital living and ubiquity, business has
to overcome the key obstacles to the mobile transformation. EDS
has identified the essential actions in terms of four 'imperatives'
that companies must take to be successful in the new digital
economy: eliminate boundaries, collaborate in new ways, establish
trust and continuously seek improvement. The obstacles to mobility
can only overcome by truly championing mobility and recognize
and approaching these four imperatives in the digital economy.
2. Impediments to mobile transformation
What are the obstacles to ubiquity
and mobility? In addition to the political, cultural and social
challenges, the immediate technological limitations involve user
and server application development, network connectivity, content
generation and management, as well as device development and
implementation. The problem with mobile devices as e.g. palm
computing devices, PDAs and mobile phones is that they cannot
be easily networked or exchange information between themselves
and other information sources. This is due to the immaturity
of current digital wireless networks, which have limited bandwidth,
limited coverage and differing regional standards.
Wireless technology promises anywhere, anytime Internet access.
But wireless electronic business will not move beyond anywhere
or anytime in the near future if inconsistent security, immature
standards, patchy service and other shortcomings are not addressed.
Therefore, many companies have a relative lack of interest for
In the transition from e-commerce
to the digital economy the major roadblock, lack of trust, must
be removed. Until we earn trust for the information industry's
ability to safeguard personal information and protect Internet
users against crime, a robust digital economy will remain a goal
far away. Given this, security is the top concern for the mobile
Security is vital to protect content as well as infrastructure.
Seamless digital living will expect and demand absolute security.
As digital living increases there will be an increasing demand
particularly in three fields: identification: the assurance that
somebody is checking to make sure users are who they say they
are; authentication/data integrity: verification that data has
not been tampered with or altered; and privacy: the assurance
that no one is going to read data except the person for whom
it is intended. Combating cyber crimes will require major efforts
from industry and governments in the future.
The information assurance risks
are many. However, the wireless technologies have advantages
over a cabled infrastructure with regard to information assurance.
During a physical disaster, e.g. a hurricane, the wireless communications
system is more likely to survive than a cabled network. Therefore,
using wireless greatly enhances network availability and information
assurance compared to cable. Some companies may wish to have
both technologies, one being used as a backup of the other.
The emerging mobile computing opportunities for telecoms and
IT providers and the success of e-business companies, measured
in thousands and millions of "hits", could be their
downfall. Their survival depends in large measure on maintaining
rapid contact with their customers in spite of viruses and denial-of-service
attacks or even underestimated shopper traffic. Dependable infrastructure
has to stay up and be open for business around the clock.
2.2 Stability and standards
The stability of wireless technology
and the disparity of standards worldwide is another big concern
in the mobile world. Until the mobile technologies are completely
reliable and proven and there are set standards, most companies
will not devote resources to wireless. The insecurity is to big
for going for one type of system today and in two years see a
different standard come out.
Among the biggest technology
drawbacks to a wireless web are that screens on mobile devices
are too small to support current web pages and content.
Changing to wireless Internet
would facilitate the work for the employees. However, the cost
for changing to wireless is a prohibiting factor for many business
and industries. The mobile devices used in a company's distribution
center cost significantly more than the handheld mobile units.
Before changing to wireless
Internet many companies first need to develop a wireless "mindset"
that also includes designing web content suitable for wireless
Among the obstacles facing
wireless web users are bandwidth limitations. Wireless bandwidth
is too narrow to support multimedia applications. The number
of people logging on from wireless devices is expected to grow
significantly. The flip side is that the wireless industry should
not underestimate the complexity of delivering web services in
a highly trafficked infrastructure.
As long as the bandwidth limitation exist, companies have to
make sure they can support a flexible infrastructure and can
handle the inevitable fluctuations the currently exist in the
3. Mobile services beyond
The hurdles to reach the wireless
world have been listed. How can companies overcome these obstacles
and how can mobility be championed? Every company regardless
of size, needs to cost-effectively control mobile technology.
Mobile capabilities have to
be highly flexible and scalable because no two companies operate
in the same way and no two users' needs are the same. Solutions
need to cover the entire spectrum of capabilities, including
business needs assessment and consultation, portal design and
content selection, network integration and operations, customer
care and support - and everything in between. Both software and
hardware decisions have to be tailored to meet each company's
Powerful mobile services must
extend beyond 'e' - beyond simply allowing people to make wireless
phone calls and otherwise wirelessly connect with each other.
Rather, the model encompasses the components necessary to make
a mobile strategy successful over the long term: applications
(commerce, information, communication), devices (smart cards,
wearables, PDAs), infrastructure, security, customer relationship
management, connectivity (WANs, LANs, MANs), enterprise applications
(enterprise systems, healthcare, knowledge management) and content
(personal, intellectual capital).
A basic paradigm shift has
occurred as corporate information systems move from a cost centre
model to a strategic business asset. Converged technologies and
the network that incorporate these technologies are no longer
used simply for sending and sharing files and printers. The network
infrastructure becomes a highly leveraged business accelerator
while technologies further converge to support the IP-based intelligent
network services. In this context, information assurance programs
become even more important. These programs must include initial
risk assessments, business continuity strategies, change management
and continued monitoring and validation of current business policies
3.1 The Digital Economy's
The mobility factor gives that
the digital economy is not business as usual. The imperatives
for success and making enterprises work in the mobile digital
- Eliminate boundaries
- Collaborate in new ways
- Establish trust
- Continuously seek improvement
Success in the mobile world
is only possible if approaching and realizing the significance
of these imperatives.
3.1.1. Eliminate Boundaries
Distinctions have to be eliminated
between the old and new digital economy. Early telephone technology
began eroding the boundaries of space and time, which is also
what mobile technologies are doing today. This development is
good as eliminating boundaries is fundamental to consumers and
businesses in the digital economy. Mobility must be championed
to eliminate boundaries. In order for companies to eliminate
boundaries and gain the digital sense, comprehensive solutions
are needed that bypasses the accustomed boundaries of time, location
(spatial or geographical) and interface (device).
Digital freedom for companies can be achieved by connecting enterprises
and individuals without regard to location, time or technology.
The most difficult issues challenging businesses trying to adopt
to a mobile strategy include: device independence and integration,
linkage to businesses databases and systems, security and privacy
issues, billing and micropayments, reliable and seamless service
and data-flow management and integration.
This wireless approach will
break through the last barrier between corporate enterprise data
and the mobile work force. The result is a solid technology platform
to bring seamless mobile corporate data offerings to market.
It creates a new standard for communication between corporations
and their mobile workers which extends the reach of corporate
knowledge centres to any device anywhere.
3.1.2 Collaborate in New Ways
It is becoming standard business
practice to collaborate. Even established businesses have to
partner with suppliers, customers and competitors. Enterprises
are abandoning old economy practices that inhibit collaboration
and the sharing of knowledge. Firms are incorporating their customers,
suppliers and partners into their value chains, creating digitally
linked communities. That means consumers are more involved in
the creation and development of their own products and that the
trading of goods and services through virtual communities becomes
so easy that the customer receives not only better prices, but
better quality products and more varieties. Increased collaboration
also means added responsibility.
The converging technologies
together in addition to the new collaborative relationships add
up in intelligent networks. Intelligent network infrastructure
that are self-defending and self-healing and remove potential
security bottlenecks need to be created.
3.1.3. Establish trust
To be able to create trust
is to be successful in the digital world. Privacy for individuals
as well as for companies is vital in this process. Organisations
world-wide must be offensive to defend their digital assets and
industry and governments have to work together to ensure the
standards that are developed protect privacy and reflect integrity
and respect for the individual. Internet and the new technologies
present new ways for committing old crimes, but it also makes
new crimes possible because the use of Internet as e.g. data
access and interference.
To prevent the consequences
of the insecurity of the mobile world some first steps would
be to place security systems and passwords in the access stream.
Encryption of communications and transaction traffic is strongly
advised. Information assurance should be the marriage of security
and business continuity for the long term.
The wireless world generates
advantages to the criminal and companies have to be prepared
to repel attacks. It is easier to "jam" wireless communications
versus a cabled infrastructure, thus causing a denial-of-service.
Networks might need to be constantly monitored to respond automatically
to jamming, thus disabling the offensive signals. Given this,
a strong set of information assurance components is vital for
the wireless world: capacity planning, risk assessment and vulnerability
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
based architectures, a system that provides a higher level of
security than is available today, will be the primary defence
against illegal activities in the digital economy. The emerging
digital economy must offer consumers a business environment they
can trust, one that is invisible to them and makes the process
safe and secure. The key to meeting these expectations is a PKI.
3.1.4. Continuously Seek Improvement
The digital economy is a dynamic,
real-time economy where speed must be a core business value.
Once information is digitised, people have the freedom to perform
their jobs anywhere, anytime, anyway.
The infrastructure necessary
for true mobile office automation has been created using voice-over
IP technology. Network providing infrastructure and management
support of wireless and conventional platforms to converge voice,
video and data into one transparent network need to be created.
The importance of establishing
trust has been expressed above. However, no service runs on automatic
pilot. The most effective approach is to take a holistic/life-cycle
approach of the difficulties and complexities that are built
in the protection of companies' information systems assets. Assuming
that protecting information is a simple matter is detrimental
for an organisation. A comprehensive life-cycle strategy accommodating
the full range of information systems security needs and that
ranges from assessment to implementation, from validation to
monitoring and management is necessary to address the critical
business and infrastructure requirements.
However, cycling just once
through the life-cycle model is not enough. Change is happening
at a rapid rate in the organisation in the technology and in
the economy. Constant monitoring of an organisation's network,
applications and people from an operational and business perspective
The new technologies in the
digital economy will provide entirely new ways of doing business
in many sectors. For example in the health sector will wearable
devices continuously assure people's health; in the field of
just-in-time training and productivity will enterprises bring
just-in-time instructions to students or knowledge and expertise
to field employees; and mobile financial services will enable
currency buyers to pay for goods and services through a key fob
or smart card containing user-identity data.
Today's mobile technologies
are impressive, although they are merely the first products of
mobility, precursors of what lies ahead. What is considered as
state of the art in mobility today is just a transformational
To meet the challenges of the
digital economy EDS has introduced EDS Mobile Services and wireless
solutions, which offers comprehensive solutions that bypass location,
time and interface. By an end-to-end perspective where the traditional
distinction between wired and wireless disappears, the model
encompasses the necessary elements to make a mobile strategy
successful over the long term: applications, infrastructure,
security, customer relationship management and more. The comprehensive
approach taken recognises the holistic life-cycle approach and
help companies eliminate boundaries, collaborate in new ways,
establish their customers' trust and continuously seek improvement.
The fundamental principle of the life-cycle model requires that
security measures are implemented by the intent of providing
long-term, continuous protection. The logic is simple - even
if an organisation's infrastructure is secure today, it will
not be tomorrow. The critical challenge is to keep the IT configurations
current and to do it on a continuing basis.
EDS Information Assurance technologies
secure trust and privacy, and do not only involve a new way of
looking at security but also new ways of doing security. The
technologies involve aggressive and proactive approaches to protect
and defend critical data and systems. Together with Information
Assurance technologies, EDS Intelligent Network Foundation (INF)
delivers real-time mechanisms for protecting companies' critical
assets. INF eliminates boundaries that traditional networks face
as it simplifies communications by combining multiple networks
into one converged architecture that unifies a company's voice,
video, data traffic on both wired and wireless platforms. It
enables them to move all this communications off phone lines
and to Internet Protocol Networks. Ubiquity is reached by plugging
into a traditional wired network or via a wireless connection
whenever one wants anywhere in the world.
Advances in broadband capabilities,
as e.g. the implementation of 3G wireless technologies, are removing
current wireless-network limitations. Within the next decade,
wireless bandwidth will reach the capacity of wired bandwidth
today, enabling wireless devices to access information once reserved
for wired devices alone.
Future generations of wireless
technology will not only bring the Internet to individuals, they
will deliver individuals to the Internet in more transparent
ways. As such the Holy Grail in wireless technology applications
is simplicity. The easier it is to place a call to order theatre
tickets or order from a catalogue, the more valuable the application
itself will be. If a consumer not is able to execute an order
on a wireless device easier than she can when using her computer,
she will not go wireless.
The fact that the user community
on the wireless telephony network is growing faster than the
Internet user community, together with the secure infrastructure
provided by telephony networks means that the future of role
Internet may change. Perhaps the Internet was just the distraction
that carriers needed to provide them time to develop the next
generation of telephony e-commerce services.
However, mobility is not about
the technology and it is not only about being wireless. The customer
will choose the channel of communication and mobility is about
the customer having the same experience anywhere he is. The ultimate
goal is ubiquity, which would require no more logging on and
Establishing and maintaining effective policies that address
the security, integrity, availability, confidentiality and privacy
of critical information system assets is crucial to business
survival. Privacy, PKI and security are all vital for mobile
technologies and the mobile world. These policies are all part
of the broader information assurance, where trust is key and
which is a fundamental part of the digital economy's four imperatives.