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e2001 - Abstracts

Abstracts of Papers Published in the Conference Proceedings - Section 1.8: Law, Security, Trust and Confidence

Section 1.8: Law, Security, Trust and Confidence
E-Arbitration-T©: An Alternative Dispute Resolution for SMEs
J. Gouimenou
Architecture and Security Issues of a Signature Server
B. Crispo, S. Sheye
A Service Platform for On-line Dispute Resolution
D. Mitzman, R. Gagliardi, P. Skehan
Time Stamping in E-Commerce
P. Sklavos, A. Kaliontzoglou, D. Polemi, T. Karantjias, A. Mitrakas
Private Copies and Rights Management Issues: the SDMI-solution (and Other Techniques) as Deus Ex Machina?
K. Bodard
Supporting Small Businesses to Deal with Legal Issues in E-Commerce
Y. Duan, R. Mullins, R. Brownsword
The Digisec Project - The Adventures of the Digital Signature in Italy
F. Bonizzi
Development of the Secure MultiMediaCard with WIM Function
T. Tsunehiro, H. Ishihara, H. Mano
SEVA: A Framework to Dynamically Set Up and Run a Secure Extranet
P. Vannel and Y. Roudier
A Monitoring/Auditing Mechanism for SSL/TLS Secure Connections
C. Kavadias, K.A. Koutsopoulos, V. Kollias, G. Stassinopoulos
Electronic Contracting in the Construction Industry
M. Merz, G. Tesei, G. Tunzi, T. Hassan
eLEGAL: Dismantling the Legal Barriers to ICT Up-Take in Virtual Enterprises
T. Hassan, C. Carter, C. Seddon, M. Mangini
Virtual Enterprise Legal Issue Taxonomy
C. Van Schoubroeck, H. Cousy, D. Droshout, B. Windey
Conceptual Framework for Virtual Enterprise in Construction
J. Hyvärinen, M. Hannus, C. Carter, J. Puttonen, P. Välikangas
Open Contracting TransActions in the New Economy (OCTANE Project)
N.-H. Kühne, M. Jungemann-Dorner, T. Lam

E-Arbitration-T©: An Alternative Dispute Resolution for SMEs
Jacques GOUIMENOU
TIGA Technologies, 21 Avenue des Genottes. BP 8123, F-95806 Cergy Cedex (France)

This paper describes how: - the E-Arbitration-TO project will analyse, define, pilot and validate the ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) technological requirements; - to establish the international legal framework, the project needs to analyse existing solutions; - to implement its technological objectives, the project will define the initial framework for the E-Arbitration Tribunal using Multi-Agent Systems communication protocols for maintaining the relationship, security and transparency between all parties to the process (appointing authority, claimants, respondents, and arbitrators); - to define the users' interactive interfaces and components for all stages of the process (asserting, documenting, arbitrating and resolving); - to define a very large exploitation and dissemination strategy towards traditional arbitration bodies, world trade centres and internet-generation arbitration tribunals; - to demonstrate worldwide the effectiveness of the E-Arbitration TO project in full scale deployment using modelling and simulation techniques and a software.

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Architecture and Security Issues of a Signature Server
Bruno CRISPO(1) and Simeon SHEYE(2)
(1) Cryptomathic Italia SpA - Corso Svizzera 185, 10149 Torino, Italia
(2) Cqptomathic A/S - Kannikegade 14,3 DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark

Geographically distributed organisations face the challenge of providing to their employees the ability to digitally sign transactions independently from which location and which capabilities have the terminal they use to generate the signature. A number of requirements have to be satisfied before this is achieved. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem and describe a centralised signature server as possible solution focussing on its security aspects. The server maintains a database over individual signature keys. Given proper identification, the signature server can be requested to sign a document or a transaction on behalf of the person whose signature key it stores. The advantage of a signature server is high security, mobility (signature can be generated from any terminal), control and independent logging of the use of the signature. Moreover, a centralised server may facilitate the enforcement of complex security policies very difficult to implement otherwise.

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A Service Platform for On-line Dispute Resolution
David MITZMAN(1), Roberto GAGLIARDI(2) and Paul SKEHAN(3)
(1) InfoCamere, Corso Stati Uniti, 14; 3.5127 Padua, Italy
(2) Consorzio Pisa Ricerche-Centro META, Corso Italia 116; 56125 Pisa, Italy
(3) Eurochambres, Rue Archimede, 5/3; B1000 Brussels, Belgium

The OnlineConfidence Project is establishing an innovative, on-line dispute resolution (ODR) service giving both consumers and businesses access to a practical, out-of-court redress procedure which fully respects the principles of impartiality, transparency, effectiveness and fairness set out in a recent EC Recommendation. The service will be delivered by a federated system of ODR agencies operating within the network of 1300 Chambers of Commerce associated with Eurochambres, as well as through partnerships with other non-Chamber initiatives in Europe and overseas. The supporting IT system will address the needs of a collaborating community of global ODR service providers. Core services include rapid direct negotiation facilities and a full, workflow-enabled mediation procedure with virtual meeting capabilities and other collaborative tools. A high degree of interoperability of system components will be achieved through new, ODR-specific data interchange standards based on XML.

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Time Stamping in E-Commerce
Panagiotis SKLAVO(1), Alexandros KALIONTZOGLOU(1), Despina POLEMI(2), Thanos
KARANTJIAS(2), Andreas MITRAKAS(3)
(1) Expertnet S.A., 244 Kifisias & 1 Ahilleos St, Halandri, Athens, Greece 155 61,
(2) Institute of Communications and Computer Systems, Herroon Polytechniou 9, Zografou,
Athens, Greece 157 73
(3) GlobalSign NV/SA, Chausstee de Haecht 1426, B-1130 Brussels

Time Stamping is a security service that can provide time related non-repudiation to electronic transactions by using digital signatures. Traditional time stamping protocols involve the stamping of e-documents by a trusted authority at some time after their creation. Thus the owner of the e-document can provide evidence of existence and possession after that particular time. Existing Time Stamping (TS) products provide solutions based on client/server implementations of the IETF time stamping protocol draft not allowing TS to be applied on a document bearing the signatures of the two transacting parties, a mjor requirement for secure e-commerce applications. This paper addresses this problem presenting results from the ongoing ISIS project TSEC.

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Private Copies and Rights Management Issues: the SDMI-solution (and Other Techniques) as Deus Ex Machina?
Katia BODARD
Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculty of Law, Department for Development of Law, Comparative Law and European Law, Centre for Interaction Law & Technology
Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium

New technologies on the Internet like P2P tile sharing have questioned the effectiveness of legal rules, especially concerning copyright. The latter have been challenged in various cases. What the Napster, MP3.com and DVD cases all show is the panic and the seemingly inability of classic intermediaries to embrace the new technology in time. To preserve their rights, technical solutions have been worked out in the form of watermarks, fingerprints and other techniques. Are these techniques the key to rights management problems? Are other solutions preferable as well? In other words how should copyrights be secured?

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Supporting Small Businesses to Deal with Legal Issues in E-Commerce
Yanqing DUAN(1), Roisin MULLINS(1), Roger BROWNSWORD(2)
(1) Luton Business School, University of Luton, Luton LU1 3JU, UK
(2) Department of Law, University of Sheffeld, UK

Surveys and focus groups were conducted to investigate small business managers' views on the legal issues in the use of the Internet and e-commerce. The study focuses on the managers' perceptions on the importance of legal issues in adopting and managing e-commerce, their current level of knowledge on basic law and legal issues involved in e-commerce, and small business needs on the provision of education and professional advice on legal issues. The surveys and focus groups highlighted the managers' strong perception on the importance of legal issues and detected a very low level of legal awareness among small business managers. As a result of these findings, a framework for an on-line intelligent legal support system is proposed.


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The Digisec Project - The Adventures of the Digital Signature in Italy
Fiorella BONIZZI
InfoCamere, via G.B. Morgagni 30H, 00161 Roma, Italy

The DIGISEC project represents the trial phase of a wider project aiming at a massive introduction of the digital signature in the administrative process of the Business Register in Italy. A parallel objective of the project is also that of address the use of the digital signature in wider contexts of e-commerce transactions, for instance, and not only in the administrative process of a public administration. This report illustrates the reasons (mainly legislative, but also technological, logistic, organisational and, in a word, cultural) that induced a deep change in the development of the project, although the main objectives, that is the monitoring of the behaviour of a large sample (100,000) of end users, are maintained.

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Development of the Secure MultiMediaCard with WIM Function
Takashi TSUNEHIRO(1) , Haruji ISHIHARA(2) and Hiroyuki MANO(1)
(1) 292 Yoshida-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama, 244-0817 Japan
(2) Nippon Bldg. 6-2, Otemachi, 2-chome, Chiyoda-ky Tokyo 100-0004 Japan

Valuable digital contents like the music data are beginning to be distributed via network. And it becomes very important to protect digital contents with copyright protection technologies. In Nov. 2000, the first digital music distribution using the mobile phone started in Japan. In this service, the distributor adopted the "Keitaide-Music" system and the Hitachi Content Protection Secure MultiMediaCard as the storage media. This card has the security functions based on the PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) technologies. Now, the next generation Secure MultiMediaCard for general usage is going to be developed. This Generic Secure MultiMediaCard will have the WIM (WAP Identity Module) functions defined in WAP forum. This card contains the same functions as the "smart card". So, a user will download the digital content to his/her card and pay its fee with the same card. The 3G mobile phone with the Generic Secure MultiMediaCard may become the necessary tool for the mobile commerce.

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SEVA: A Framework to Dynamically Set Up and Run a Secure Extranet
Pierre VANNEZL(1) and Yves ROUDlER(2)
(1) Gemplus Labs, Parc d'activites de Gemenos, B.P.100, 13881 Gemenos CEDEX, France
(2) Institut Eureecom, 2229 route des Cretes, B.P. 193, 06904 Sophia-Antipolis, France

An extranet lets an organisation share part of its information system (e.g. documents, services, computers.. .etc.) securely over the Internet. In-house data is available to suppliers, customers, or external partners. Security is critical, but it must not stand in the way efficient business practices. Exchanges should comply with an established security policy, but there are no widely-accepted solutions to accomplish this. The SEVA framework deals with these issues and this paper describes the SEVA architecture. A typical scenario of operation of a SEVA extranet is provided in this paper.

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A Monitoring/Auditing Mechanism for SSL/TLS Secure Connections
(1) National Technical University of Athens (NTUA); Dept. of Electrical & Computer Eng. 9, Heroon Polytechniou Str., 157 73, Zographou, Athens, GREECE
(2) TELETEL S.A; 124, Kifisias Avenue, Athens, GREECE

This paper analyses the SSL/TLS procedures and defines the functionality of a monitoring/auditing entity running in parallel with the protocol, which is decoding, checking the certificate and permitting session establishment based on the decoded certificate information, the network addresses of the endpoints and a predefined access list. Finally, this paper discusses how such a facility can be used for detection of compromised private keys.

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Electronic Contracting in the Construction Industry
Michael Merz(1), Gino TESEI(1), Giuseppe TANZI(1), Tarek HASSAN(2)
(1) Ponton Group AG, Stresemannstr. 163, 22769 Hamburg, Germany
(2) Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK

The advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) are giving rise to new types of inter-networked organisations. These 'Smart" organisations are virtual in concept, highly flexible, and rely on network technologies. Typical examples of such virtual enterprises are those formed to execute construction projects and generally large scale engineering projects. eLEGAL (IST-1999-20570) is an RTD (Research in Technical Developments) project within the Information Society Technologies (IST) programme of the European Commission. eLEGAL concentrates on automating contracting processes related to the use of ICT in the European construction industry. The main aim of eLEGAL is to define a framework for specifying legal conditions and contracts to enable a legally admissible (exclusive) use of ICT in project business. This paper will concentrate on the technological basis upon which eLEGAL service and software components are built. For the eLEGAL software development, we differentiate three separate layers of the software. At the lowest layer, collaboration services provide concurrency control to keep contract data consistent. At an intermediate level, a generic contracting service uses the collaboration software for the specific purpose of contract negotiation, while the highest layer provides rules that allow to validate contracts.

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eLEGAL: Dismantling the Legal Barriers to ICT Up-Take in Virtual Enterprises
Tarek HASSAN(1), Chris CARTER(1), Clive SEDDON(2), Mauro MANGINI(3)
(1) Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK
(2) Masons, 30 Aylesbury Street, London EC1R 0ER, UK
(3) Geodeco S.p.A, Via Pontiroli 18 / 5,16031 Bogliasco (Genoa), Italy

Advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) are increasingly leading to "virtual organisations" being formed, i.e. to execute construction projects. Legal issues are threatening to inhibit their growth and prosperity, including a lack of contractual support for electronic information and documentation. The eLEGAL project (IST-1999-20570) is undertaking research in this area, aiming to define a framework for specifying legal conditions and contracts to enable a legally admissible use of ICT in project business. In this way, all parties involved in the VEs, including SMEs, will be confident that there is a legal framework regulating their new ways of working leading to more trust and hence, improved business relationships. This paper describes the eLEGAL project and presents initial findings from a review of legal contracts and clauses related to the use of ICTs. The eLEGAL approach to dismantling the barriers to ICT up-take is then introduced.

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Virtual Enterprise Legal Issue Taxonomy
Caroline VAN SCHOUBROECK, Herman COUSY, Dimitri DROSHOUT, Bart WINDEY
K.U.Leuven University, Law School, Department of Commercial Law and Insurance Law, Collegium Falconis, Tiensestraat 41, 3000 Leuven, Belgium,

This paper describes the development and the structure of the "Virtual Enterprise Legal Issue Taxonomy". First the Taxonomy will be situated in the framework of the ALIVE-project. Next the objectives and the structure of the Taxonomy will be clarified. Then, the three branches of the actual Taxonomy will be explained. The first branch holds a description of the features of the VE, from both a business and a legal point of view. The main part of the paper gives a general overview of the second and third branches of the Taxonomy. The second branch of the taxonomy is situated at a rather basic level and will resemble most to a common dictionary. At that level, the sequence of the topics is mainly alphabetical, because at random. The third branch lifts up the prior classification of legal issues to a higher level, by classifying those issues on the basis of different angles by which the VE can be looked upon. In conclusion, some dilemmas and questions will be raised.

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Conceptual Framework for Virtual Enterprise in Construction
Juha HYVARINEN(1), Matti HANNUS(1), Chris CARTER(2), Jari PUTTONEN(3) and Pekka VliLIKANGAS(3)
(1) VTT Building and Transport P.O.Box 1801, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland
(2) Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK,
(3) Forturn Engineering Ltd, P.O. Box 10, FIN - 000 48 FORTUM, Finland,

This paper will discuss the development of a framework for the concepts related to project based Virtual Enterprises/Smart Organisations, which are typical especially in construction projects. In the ongoing European project eLEGAL (Specifying Legal Terms of Contract in ICT Environment, IST-1999-20570) fundamental concepts and their semantics have been collected, based on a state of the art study of Virtual Enterprise contractual practices and related ICT support. The resulting framework for Virtual Enterprise is published as a glossary of terms and a formal information model. The development of this conceptual framework is expected to contribute to the general understanding between the experts in legal, construction technology and ICT issues and to provide a basis of a roadmap for further research.

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Open Contracting TransActions in the New Economy (OCTANE Project)
Nils-Henrik KUHNE(1), Monika JUNGEMANN-DORNER(1), Tony LAM(2)
(1) ComNetMedia AG, Emil-Figge-Strasse 86, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany,
(2) NetUnion Sarl, Avenue Louis Ruchonnet 57, CH-1003 Lausanne, Switzerland,

OCTANE is a Key Action II Trial that establishes secure and web-based tools for electronic contracting. The project responds to a large variety of different contracting scenarios and user requirements in business-to-business and business-to-administration with a set of advanced technology components and service concepts, supporting dynamic networked organisations in a broad sense.

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